Background theory, a reference design, and demonstration results are given for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) interference localization system comprising a distributed radio-frequency sensor network that simultaneously locates multiple interference sources by measuring their signals’ time difference of arrival (TDOA) between pairs of nodes in the network. The end-to-end solution offered here draws from previous work in single-emitter group delay estimation, very long baseline interferometry, subspace-based estimation, radar, and passive geolocation. Synchronization and automatic localization of sensor nodes is achieved through a tightly-coupled receiver architecture that enables phase-coherent and synchronous sam- pling of the interference signals and so-called reference signals which carry timing and positioning information. Signal and cross- correlation models are developed and implemented in a simulator. Multiple-emitter subspace-based TDOA estimation techniques are developed as well as emitter identification and localization algorithms. Simulator performance is compared to the Cramér-Rao lower bound for single-emitter TDOA precision. Results are given for a test exercise in which the system accurately locates emitters broadcasting in the amateur radio band in Austin, TX.

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J.A. Bhatti, T.E. Humphreys, and B.M. Ledvina, "Development and Demonstration of a TDOA-Based GNSS Interference Signal Localization System," IEEE/ION PLANS Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC, April 2012.