Dr. Humphreys gave a lightning talk during the ION GNSS+ 2014 plenary session on September 9th.  In addition to the below summary, this presentation is available for download (.pptx).

The upcoming session on GNSS vulnerabilities and threats will discuss techniques for enhancing the ability of receivers to detect, disregard, and operate through intentional and unintentional interference.  We will see a broad spectrum of civil GNSS interference defenses and must recall that GNSS signal authentication is fundamentally a statistical decision theory problem.  We will learn about the full stack of civil GNSS jamming, from motivation to smartphone-based mitigation.  Many GNSS spoofing defenses will be reported, including a recent field test of a two-antenna defense aboard a yacht.  Recent research on A-PNT will discuss how DME and inertial sensors can strengthen the navigation capabilities available for aviation.   

If you’re moving, you’re navigating, and modern navigation also requires precise timing and collision avoidance. Depth and breadth of expertise in sensor fusion, physical-layer signal processing, and security is necessary to address the general problem of secure perception, which extends far beyond GNSS interference.  One application for advances in secure perception is deep-water drilling, where we need to secure not only the GNSS receivers but also backup positioning systems (e.g., hydro acoustic).  A second application is self-driving cars: the "eyes" of these cars will not be lidar or cameras, but low-cost radar sensors, such as those perfected by Bosch, Daimler, and other over the last two decades.  Short and long range automotive radar are robust (e.g., seeing through rain and fog), but not secure.  With a 200-MHz/ms FMCW sweep, and with 10 randomly-assigned bands, the probability of interference between two passing cars is less than 1 in 1500, but the security of these systems against deliberate attack is weak because the FMCW modulation is trivially predictable.  In years to come, we can anticipate ION panel sessions on all aspects of secure perception, from navigation to timing to collision avoidance. Emphasis will be on semi-autonomous and autonomous systems.