This paper investigates the effectiveness of multipath-decorrelating antenna motion in reducing the initialization time of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers employing low-cost single-frequency antennas for carrier-phase differential GNSS (CDGNSS) positioning. Fast initialization times with low-cost antennas will encourage the expansion of CDGNSS into the mass market, bringing the benefits of globally-referenced centimeter-accurate positioning to many consumer applications, such as augmented reality and autonomous vehicles, that have so far been hampered by the several-meter-level errors of traditional GNSS positioning. Poor multipath suppression common to low-cost antennas results in large and strongly time-correlated phase errors when a receiver is static. Such errors can result in the CDGNSS initialization time, the so-called time to ambiguity resolution (TAR), extending to hundreds of seconds—many times longer than for higher- cost survey-grade antennas, which have substantially better multipath suppression. This paper demonstrates that TAR can be significantly reduced through gentle wavelength-scale random antenna motion. Such motion acts to decrease the correlation time of the multipath-induced phase errors. A priori knowledge of the motion profile is shown to further reduce TAR, with the reduction more pronounced as the initialization scenario is more challenging.

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K. M. Pesyna, Jr., T. Novlan, C. Zhang, R. W. Heath, Jr., and T. E. Humphreys, "Exploiting antenna motion for faster initialization of centimeter-accurate GNSS positioning with low-cost antennas," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 3, Aug. 2017