Exchange of location and sensor data among connected and automated vehicles will demand accurate global referencing of the digital maps currently being developed to aid positioning for automated driving. This paper explores the limit of such maps’ globally-referenced position accuracy when the mapping agents are equipped with low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers performing standard code- phase-based navigation. The key accuracy-limiting factor is shown to be the asymptotic average of the error sources that impair standard GNSS positioning. Asymptotic statistics of each GNSS error source are analyzed through both simulation and empirical data to show that sub-50-cm accurate digital mapping is feasible in moderately urban environments in the horizontal plane after multiple mapping sessions with standard GNSS, but larger biases persist in the vertical direction.

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Lakshay Narula, Matthew J. Murrian, and Todd E. Humphreys, "Accuracy Limits for Globally-Referenced Digital Mapping Using Standard GNSS," In 2018 21st International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), pp. 3075-3082. IEEE, 2018.